Geology and Geoscience

Literally, “The study of the Earth,” geology investigates the Earth’s crust, its structure, composition, the processes acting on it, and their impact on the dynamics of the Earth and its minerals. Geoscience, also known as Earth Science, investigates the processes that shape the Earth’s surface, the resources humans utilize, and how water and ecosystems are related. Pollution, food webs, paleontology, ecosystems, plates, and climate change, are all topics covered by geoscience.

Geomatics and Geomorphology

Geography concentrates on physical locations, human management of the planet, and the interconnected issues brought on by changes in the built environment, the economy, politics, and culture. On the other hand, The science, engineering, and art of gathering and handling geographically referenced data are collectively called geomatics. Cadastral work includes measuring and analyzing land-related data, determining property boundaries, survey legislation, land use planning, hydrographic surveying, and geodetic and engineering surveys.

Marine Geosciences, Soil Science, Glaciology, Geoarchaeology,Geoheritage

The study of marine geology concentrates on regions impacted by our oceans, such as the deep ocean floor, the shallower slopes and shelves that encircle the continents, and coastal regions like beaches and estuaries. The study of soil as a natural resource on the Earth’s surface, including its creation, classification, and mapping, as well as its physical, chemical, biological, and fertility features and how these properties relate to how soils are used and managed, is known as soil science. Glaciology is the study of ice in the natural world, of which winter snow, sea ice, glaciers, ice sheets, and frozen land are crucial elements. Geoarchaeology uses techniques from the Earth sciences to respond to archaeological inquiries. The geological component of natural and cultural heritage is known as geoheritage. A specific geoheritage asset is a geosite.

Historical Geology, Paleoceanography, Paleoclimatology

The field of historical geology, often known as palaeogeology, uses the concepts and procedures of geology to retrace Earth’s geological past. Historical geology looks at the immensity of geologic time, measured in billions of years, and studies change in the Earth over this long period, both slow and abrupt. Paleoceanography information is derived from various deep-sea sediment proxies, such as species composition, lithology, and fossil plankton’s trace metal and isotopic composition. Paleoclimatologists examine various environmental evidence to shed light on the past, much like archaeologists do with fossils and other physical hints. The study of ancient climates before the widespread use of instrumental records is known as paleoclimatology.

Earthquake Seismology and Geodesy

The study of elastic wave motion through the ground is known as seismology. The best instrument for understanding the Earth’s innards is earthquake seismology. Seismograms measure, magnify, and record ground motion, then detect and record the waves. The sites of earthquakes, subsurface structures, and other factors are then determined using the information. Geodesy is the scientific study of three essential characteristics of the Earth’s geometry, orientation in space, and gravity field, as well as the variation in these characteristics through time.

Structural Geology, Tectonics, and Geodynamics

The branch of structural geology examines how rocks change shape in response to forces acting on the Earth. According to the scientific hypothesis of plate tectonics, the underground movements of the Earth create the primary landforms. By explaining a wide range of phenomena, including mountain- building events, volcanoes, and earthquakes, the theory, which became firmly established in the 1960s, revolutionized the earth sciences.

Applied & Theoretical Geophysics

Solid geophysics is a branch of research that use physics to study the Earth’s interior and surroundings. The goal of the geophysical study is to understand and explore the inner-earth conundrums (such as its composition of materials and evolutional laws), to discover and understand a variety of internal physical processes, and to develop new theories, new methods and new techniques for the improvement of human living conditions, the prevention and mitigation of disasters, and other purposes. Solid geophysics has evolved rapidly as one of the cornerstones of earth science thanks to the remarkable development of computer technology, computational mathematics, and geophysical observational and experimental methodologies.

Geotechnical and Structural Engineering

The discipline of geotechnical engineering in civil engineering is concerned with how earth materials behave under engineering conditions. This branch of geological engineering applies the principles of soil and rock mechanics and draws on expertise in geology, geophysics, hydrology, and other fields. The structural design of man-made entities is the focus of structural engineering, a subfield of civil engineering. These engineers, frequently called developing the “bones and muscles” of structures, must comprehend the rigidity, stability, and strength of both building- and non-building structures.

Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing

The science and technology of geoinformatics involve developing and using information science infrastructure to challenges in geography, cartography, geosciences, and related fields of science and engineering. The practice of remote sensing involves measuring an area’s reflected and emitted radiation from a distance to identify and keep track of its physical features (typically from satellite or aircraft). Remotely sensed photos are captured by specialized cameras and are used by researchers to “feel” the Earth.